Jean Monnet Center at NYU School of Law

Previous |Next |Title |Contents

Figure 3: Intra-EC Trade and Average Number of Art. 177 References

For each member-state, the total number of art. 177 references was divided by the number of years in which that member-state has been making references to the ECJ. Belux is Belgium and Luxembourg combined. Trade figures are the annual average of intra-EC imports and exports for each member-state measured in Ecu (European currency unit), 1960-93. Trade data are from Eurostat: External Trade 1958-93, Brussels: EC Publications, 1995. The source for art. 177 references is data collected by the authors and the ECJ. The regression equation is y=.2105 + .0002247(Trade) + e. Adjusted R2=.92, n=11, and the SEE=2.46. The t-statistics are: .178 for the constant; and 10.8 for intra-EC trade.

We tested whether, respectively, (a) higher levels of diffuse support for the European legal system (measures developed by Caldeira and Gibson, 1995), (b) larger populations (aggregated as the average population for each member-state, 1961-93), and (c) larger economies (aggregated as the average GDP for each member-state, 1961-93) generate higher levels of references per member-state. The dependent variable for each model is the average number of art. 177 references per member-state, and n=11. Our results are summarized as follows:

Intercept t-stat coefficien t-stat Adj. R2 SEE
Diffuse support 10.08 3.92 19.88 1.18 .04 8.54
Population 6.4 1.55 9.43(10-8) 1.16 .03 8.55
GDP 3.33 1.48 1.48(10-11) 4.3 .63 5.27

Sources: The index of diffuse support for the ECJ is from Caldeira and Gibson (1995, 3 64). Population data are from The World Tables of Economic and Social Indicators (ICPSR #9300), The World Bank, 1990 (2nd Release). GDP data for 1960-69 are from The Cross-National Time-Series Study (ICPSR #7412, Arthur Banks, 1976; and GDP data for 1970-94 are from The World Tables, The World Bank, 1995.

Previous |Next |Title |Contents



Questions or comments about this site?

Top of the page