Jean Monnet Center at NYU School of Law

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Figure 7 : Article 177 References by Court Level Across Time

* The source for Article 177 references is data collected by the authors with the help of the European Court of Justice.

Courts of reference were coded into one of three categories: low courts (of first instance); intermediate courts (of appeal, but not courts of final appeal in any court system); high courts (of final appeal in any court system).

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