Jean Monnet Center at NYU School of Law

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Table 1. The Impact of Intra-EC Trade on Article 177 References:

Pooled, Cross-Sectional, Time Series Models

Model 1

Model 2

Intra-EC Trade





Post-1969 Dummy



Adjusted R2









*** p<.001

Entries are unstandardized regression coefficients, with t-statistics reported in parentheses. The dependent variable is annual Article 177 references for each member state, per year. The independent variable for model #1 is intra-EC trade, the value of both imports and exports for each member state (Belgium and Luxembourg combined) with all other member states, for each year. The independent variables for model #2 are intra-EC trade and a dummy variable coded "0" from 1961-69, and "1" from 1970-92. The model consists of 246 observations: Belgium-Luxembourg 1961-92; Denmark 1973-92; France 1961-92; Germany 1961-92; Greece 1981-92; Ireland 1973-92; Italy 1961-92; Netherlands 1961-92; Portugal 1986-92; Spain 1986-92; UK 1973-92. The source for the trade data is Eurostat (1995). The source for Article 177 references is data collected by the authors and the ECJ. Econometric Views 2.0 was used to estimate a fixed effects model. See Stimson (1985) and Sayrs (1989) for a discussion of pooled models.

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