The twentieth century's most important proclamation of human rights, the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, was adopted by the United Nations General Assembly on 10 December 1948.2 It provided not only the inspiration but also the basis for the drafting of the European Convention on Human Rights, which was adopted less than two years later.3 Between them, the two instruments enabled the work of building a European community to proceed without a separate human rights foundation.
To mark the beginning of the 50th anniversary year of the Universal Declaration, the European Council, meeting in Luxembourg in December 1997, appealed to all states to step up their efforts in the field of human rights by:
- acceding to international instruments to which they are not yet party ...;
- ensuring more stringent implementation of those instruments;
- strengthening the role of civil society in promoting and protecting human rights;
- promoting activities on the ground and developing technical assistance in the area of human rights;
- strengthening in particular training and education programmes concerning human rights.4
Although seemingly directed at third states, it goes without saying that such a programme applies as much, if not more, to the European Union and its Member States. This article seeks to identify the consequences which should follow from an effort to apply that programme and its underlying assumptions to the activities of the Union.
A considerable number of the specific recommendations made in this article have previously been made by others. In particular, the European Parliament has long called, and continues to call, for major reforms, some of which follow lines similar to those proposed here.5 The European Commission has advocated a great many innovations, starting with its unsuccessful 1979 proposal for Community accession to the European Convention on Human Rights, and continuing until today. In a detailed examination of the Union's external human rights policy, the Economic and Social Committee concluded that internal and external policies need to be closely linked, and it endorsed an extensive range of recommendations.6 In addition, a number of expert groups focusing on specialized issues have reached similar conclusions about the need for human rights reforms.7 Finally, an earlier set of proposals emanated from a project undertaken to coincide with the introduction of the single market.8
The present analysis, however, goes beyond those earlier prescriptions in a number of respects. Moreover, the situation today has changed fundamentally from that which prevailed even as recently as a couple of years ago. The Union is indeed becoming `ever closer'. A single market, a single currency, and the imminent prospect of a greatly enlarged Union, all have major human rights implications that can no longer be dealt with in a piecemeal fashion. Rather than focusing on either internal or external policies, this article insists that only a unified approach embracing both dimensions of the Union's approach to human rights is viable. Finally, this analysis seeks to present a comprehensive and balanced package of reforms which pays very careful attention to the limits of what might be legally and politically feasible. Accordingly, it spells out in considerable detail the legal and political bases upon which the proposed programme can be implemented.
In the light of these objectives the article is especially concerned with institutional matters. This is not because we have a naïve and undiluted faith in the powers of bureaucracy, or because we are unconcerned with the substance of the grand challenges that emerge from any close examination of the EU's human rights policy. There are, however, several reasons which seem to warrant the approach which has been adopted.
The first is that the potential scope of an analysis such as this is vast. It would be pretentious as well as unrealistic to purport to provide a comprehensive, let alone a minutely well-informed critique, of every aspect of EU policy in all of the many fields touching upon human rights within the confines of such an analysis. Second, the EU is a political and bureaucratic entity in which the starting points for major policy reform or innovation are: i) a reasonably clear-cut acceptance of the proposed policy orientation on the part of policy-makers at each of the key levels; and ii) the shaping of policy-making, administrative and judicial structures which are adequately equipped to pursue the more specialized dimensions of human rights policy in relationship to the different sectoral areas.
Third, and closely related, is the fact that there is little point in going into the finer details of policy until the central issue of principle, that of the Union's competences in relation to many aspects of human rights, is resolved. There is no shortage of compelling and highly detailed analyses, whether prepared by specialists, interest groups, scholars or activists, which seek to spell out what the Community should do in one area or another of internal policy and which simply take for granted that the necessary legal and constitutional competence exists. For the most part they do so with scant regard to the resistance which that proposition continues to encounter from many quarters. In order to avoid the futility which follows from the neglect of the sometimes tedious and arcane, but nonetheless indispensable, legal dimension, this article attaches particular importance to establishing a clear and appropriate foundation for the specific measures proposed.
Fourth, the promotion and protection of human rights is not a one-time undertaking and neither governments nor bureaucracies can be counted upon to remain consistently, let alone insistently, vigilant. There will always be occasions and issues in relation to which it will seem preferable to sweep human rights under the carpet (`temporarily', of course, and only in the interests of a more profound objective which is itself assumed to be human rights friendly). Thus, one of the principal themes running through all aspects of this article is that the relevant structures and institutions must be made more open and responsive to pressures from civil society and other watchdogs to respect human rights. The article explores how this theme might be translated into practice by concentrating upon the need for more systematic and reliable information, the need to be able to identify who is institutionally responsible for upholding human rights, the need to be able to hold those in power accountable, the need for a system of checks and balances, and the need for more openness and transparency.
2 GA Res. 217A (III), 10 December 1948.
3 G. Cohen-Jonathan, La Convention européenne des droits de l'homme(1989) 11.
4 Conclusions of the European Council meeting of Luxembourg, December 1997, Annex 3 with the title `Declaration by the European Council at the Beginning of the Year of the Fiftieth Anniversary of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights', Bulletin of the European Union 12-1997, point I.21, para. 6.
5 See, in particular, Annual Report on Human Rights Throughout the World in 1995-1996 and the Union's Human Rights Policy, Rapporteur: Mrs Catherine Lalumière, Doc. A4-0400/96 of 28 Nov. 1996.
6 Opinion of the Economic and Social Committee on `The European Union and the External Dimensions of Human Rights Policy', 97/C206/21 of 24 April 1997, OJ C 206/117.
7 See, for example, the 1996 Final Report by a Comité des Sages, chaired by Maria de Lourdes Pintasilgo, entitled For a Europe of Civic and Social Rights, and the Report of the High Level Panel on the Free Movement of Persons chaired by Mrs Simone Veil presented to the Commission on 18 March 1997.
8 `1992 - What Are Our Rights?: Agenda for a Human Rights Action Plan', in A. Cassese, A. Clapham and J. Weiler (eds), Human Rights and the European Community, Vol. II (1991).
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